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fredag 29 september 2017

Hubblen vakia universumin laajentumsiesta

 NASAtiedettä

Hubble’s Contentious Constant

Thanks to astronomer Edwin Hubble and others, scientists have known since 1929 that our universe is expanding. Its current rate of expansion is called Hubble’s Constant (H0).  There are two leading ways to measure H0, and for fifteen years, they more or less agreed with one another.
Not anymore, and that’s a big deal.
Here’s why.

In the “Standard Model of Cosmology,” H0 is a crucial ingredient, right up there with the speed of light. H0 factors into everything we know about the universe:  how old it is, how big it is, what it’s made of...  If H0 is ‘tweaked’, we get a different age of the universe, different relative amounts of matter, dark matter, dark energy, and so on.
Unlike the speed of light, however, scientists can’t measure H0 in the laboratory. Instead, H0 has to be inferred from observations of the universe.
One way scientists have measured H0 is to use observations of type 1a supernovae combined with their host galaxies redshifts. Each 1a supernova releases roughly the same amount of light when it explodes. Measuring the amount of light we receive from a 1a supernova tells us its distance. Measuring an object’s redshift, or its increase in wavelength, tells us how fast that object is moving away from Earth. Researchers use many 1a supernovae as distance markers, measuring objects in our local universe then moving out to get a measurement of the universe’s rate of expansion.
The other H0 measurement technique looks at the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) -- the “afterglow” from the Big Bang itself. The early universe was hot and dense, light couldn’t travel freely through space. As the universe cooled, the photons were released. This radiation left an imprint, providing insights into the composition of the universe at that time. The CMB can be used to make measurements from the early universe such as the density of dark matter and dark energy. Those measurements can be combined with the model of the evolution of the universe, allowing researchers to infer the rate of expansion of the universe, or Hubble’s Constant.
As these two camps have improved their abilities to measure H0, it has become clear that they disagree. A recent study using the first method yielded an 8% greater expansion rate than the second method’s result.
Now scientists are asking: Are we missing something?
Wendy Freedman, Sullivan professor of astronomy and astrophysics at the University of Chicago says, “It could be that we don’t understand the uncertainties well enough to know why these two methods differ.”
Freedman led a 2001 study using the Hubble Space Telescope to measure H0 via the first method, and is leading a new project to measure it more accurately.
Another intriguing question: Is it incorrect to expect agreement in these measurements of H0? Maybe the Standard Model of Cosmology, which predicts agreement, is wrong. That would send researchers on an exciting search for a new model of the cosmos.
“Do we really know what makes up all of the radiation in the Big Bang?” wonders Freedman. “Is there a new kind of particle we aren’t accounting for? Or are dark energy’s or dark matter’s properties changing over time?
Over the next few years, researchers like Freedman will be trying to poke holes in how each method conducts its analysis -- before possibly invoking a revised model of cosmology.
For more mind-expanding news about the cosmos, stay tuned to science.nasa.gov.

torsdag 28 september 2017

Fibonacci ja virologia- löytyykö jotain luonnon lakia?

Katson  filmin ebolasta ja sen struktuureista.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=87z-lxTvnBU
jokainen uusi ebolavirus on mutatoitunut versio, se mutatoituu jatkuvasti.  Rokotetta varten koetetaan etsiä sen genomista  sekvenssikohtaa, joka vastaa  nopeasta muuntumisesta.


HUOM: kalvolipidit fosfatidylseriini (PS)  ja fosfatidylinositoli (PI-lipidi)   plasmakalvon sisälehdessä ovat olennaisen tärkeät viruksen kiinnittymiselle:
EBOV budding occurs from the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane (PM) and is driven by the matrix protein VP40, which is the most abundantly expressed protein of the virus
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4061899/
PIP2 molekyyliä voi vähentää Lithiumilla.
 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10789877
Lithiumin annosta tiedetään että se sopii ihmiselle kun pitoisuutta seurataan. 
Kolesterolia voi vähentää statiinilla. botten up- approaching  -therapy.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26143190https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26143190
Ne voisivat heikentää ebolan virionin rakentumista olennaisesti - mielestäni. ellei sitten  tule uusia truncated - lajeja
Pitäisi katsoa onko kenelläkään ebolasta toipuneella ollut  statiini tai litiumlääkitys.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4061899/bin/fmicb-05-00300-g003.jpg
Bildresultat för ebola structure




måndag 18 september 2017

Entä immunomodulaatio punkkienkefaliittiviruksen aiheuttamissa oireissa?

Yleensä  joskus ei henkilö havaitsekaan mitään punkkia ja  siten tulee tosi pahoissa  oireissa ja sairaana sairaalaan kuten artikkelin mies, joka kyllä  sittemmin  muisti, että  jokin punkki tuli nypittyä pari viikkoa ennen... Sitten on infektiolääkäreillä  räätälöimistä oireitten lääkitsemisessä ja ylipäätänsä diagnoosin  varmistamisessa.

 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28632298

Tästä on   esikuvallinen artikkeli Lääkärilehdessä nr. 25-26, 2017.

Lakartidningen. 2017 Jun 16;114. pii: ELAI.
Patient med TBE förbättrades snabbt vid behandling med kortison - Evidens saknas dock för värdet av immunmodulerande terapi.
[Article in Swedish]

Abstract

Rapid improvement of tick-borne encephalitis after treatment with corticosteroids Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a viral disease transmitted by ticks. The virus is divided into three subtypes named Western, Siberian and Far Eastern TBE virus (TBEV). Western TBEV is endemic in parts of Europe and Sweden and typically causes a biphasic illness with influenza-like symptoms followed by neurological symptoms ranging from mild meningitis to severe meningoencephalitis and death. Despite an effective vaccine, TBE is increasing in Sweden and Europe. The pathogenesis of TBE is poorly understood; direct infection of neurons as well as immunological reactions mediated by T-cells have been implicated. In some endemic areas, such as Lithuania, patients with TBE are given corticosteroids based on the clinical experience that it results in rapid improvement. However, existing retrospective studies have failed to show beneficial effects of corticosteroids compared to symptomatic treatment in patients with TBE. This case report describes how an elderly man with meningoencephalitis and cranial nerve palsy due to TBE  rapidly improved after administration of high dose corticosteroids.
PMID:
28632298

lördag 16 september 2017

YF ja TBE rokotekombinaatio- olisikohan hyödyllinen?

Itselläni on se onni,että on tullut otettua joskus ennen Israeliin menoa keltakuumerokote, ja myös isorokkorokotuskin- se on saatu  kaksi kertaakin. tässä Stamarilmainoksessa (*)  on teksti, että keltakuumerokote antaa eliniäkäisen suojan.

Sikäli   se rokote toimisi hyvnä prevaksinaationa kun kerrostaa  immuniteettiään  punkkia vastaan, joka on myös flaviviruksia, muta jonka  nykyinen rokote ei ole täysin  suojava  uutta infektoitumsita vastaan.  Tämä on minun mielipiteeni, mtua olen löytänyt vain ydhen viiteen asiasta.  ja sekin on vanha 1980-luvulta eiä lie tehty tutkimusta  nykyään rokotetuilta, jos heillä on jokin muun flaviviruksen rokotus anamneesissa.  Pitäisi ensin saada  retroaktiivinen tutkimus. Nykyaikana onneksi matkustetaan niin paljon ulkomaille että  YF- rokotuksiakin tehtäneen aika paljon.   Se olisi sikäli hyödyllinen tieto, koska  TBE-rokotteen  kehittely paremmaksi voi viedä kaan aikaa.

 Toisaalta  saako TBEV virukselle luonnollista  immuniteettia ?? Siitäkin löydän artikkelin(**)

Stamaril är avsett för personer som reser till, passerar genom eller bor i ett område där gula febern finns eller reser till ett land där det krävs ett bevis på genomgången vaccination för inresa. Även mellanlandningar i ett land som av slutdestinationen klassas som gula febern-område kan föranleda krav på dylikt bevis. Ett sådant kan bara utfärdas av särskilt certifierade vaccinationsmottagningar, och gäller från 10 dagar efter vaccinationen. Skyddet är livslångt. I vissa fall kan det på grund av medicinska eller andra ställningstaganden vara lämpligt att istället skriva ett intyg om undantag från vaccination, och den bedömningen görs i så fall inför varje resa.

(**)Maria Elena Remoli
3.47 · Istituto Superiore di Sanità
Abstract
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus infection elicits a life-long lasting protection. 
However, little is known about the neutralizing antibodies titres following natural infection. In this study, subjects with past TBE disease (n = 62) were analysed for the presence and titre of anti-TBE neutralizing antibodies, and compared with a vaccinated cohort (n = 101). Neutralizing antibody titres were higher in individuals with past TBE and did not show an age-dependent decrease when compared with vaccinees.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jmv.1890170106/abstract
 

Human antibody response to immunization with 17D yellow fever and inactivated TBE vaccine

Author

  • First published: Full publication history
  • DOI: 10.1002/jmv.1890170106  View/save citation
  • Abstract

    The antibody response against flaviviruses tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD), Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE), West Nile fever (WNF), Japanese B encephalitis (JE), dengue 2 (DEN-2), and yellow fever (YF) was studied in humans after administration of an inactivated TBE virus vaccine.
     Individuals were either prevaccinated with 17D yellow fever (experimental group) or without any previous exposure to flaviviruses (control group). The appearance of serum titres of homologous and heterologous haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibodies, heterotypic DEN-2 neutralizing antibodies, and TBE enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibodies were examined.
    Individuals prevaccinated with the 17D yellow fever developed an antibody pattern that contrasted with that of the control group.
    This pattern was characterized as follows:
     (1) Predominantly anti-TBE IgG antibodies appeared earlier and in higher titres than in the control group,
     (2) heterologous HI antibodies crossreacting with the WN flavivirus subgroup preceded the appearance of homologous HI antibodies,
     (3) a broad spectrum HI response was observed against all flaviviruses tested, and
     (4) low titre heterotypic DEN-2 neutralizing antibodies were formed in about half of the cases. These observations are discussed in the context of cross-reactivity, cross-protection and virus infection enhancement.

fredag 15 september 2017

Ruotsissa käytetty TBE-rokote

onsdag, 17 december 2014 13:13

TBE

Skrivet av

Allmän information

TBE är en virusinfektion som sprids via fästingar. Virus finns i fästingens spottkörtlar och överförs direkt i samband med bettet. Inkubationstiden är ungefär en till två veckor men även längre tider har rapporterats. Symptomen är ofta feber, huvudvärk, kramper och förlamningar. En tredje del får bestående men och dödsfall förekommer. Barn får ofta lindrigare symptom. TBE finns i Sverige huvudsakligen runt Mälaren, Skärgården från Öregrund till Kalmar och runt Vänern och Vättern. TBE finns i de Baltiska staterna, Öststaterna inklusive Ryssland och i Centraleuropa.
I Sverige har det rapporterats omkring 200 fall per år med en viss ökad frekvens de sista åren.

Profylax

Viktigast är att försöka att undvika fästingbett. Använd gärna ljusa plagg /så att man upptäcker fästingarna/, stövlar och byxor nedstoppade innanför stövlarna och långärmat. Myggmedel har en viss effekt. Kolla barnen när man kommit hem. Har man fått en fästing skall den borttagas omgående med tanke på Borrelia.
Vaccin

Vaccination

Det finns två vacciner Encepur och FSME-IMMUN med jämförbar skyddseffekt.
Grund vaccinering bör påbörjas mars-april.
Grundvaccinering av personer under 60 år är 2 vaccineringar med en månads mellanrum och en 3:e 6-12 månader efter den första. Den 4:e tas 3 år efter och sedan upprepas vaccinationen efter 5 år. Äldre över 60 år bör grundvaccineras med 3 doser /intervallet mellan de första 2 doserna bör vara 1 månad och en 3:e dos tas redan 1-2 månader efter den andra/. Den 4:e dosen tas inför nästa säsong. Därefter bör doserna upprepas var 3:e år. Även om det gått lång tid efter 2:a dosen behöver man inte börja om med grund-vaccineringen – diskutera detta med Vaccinationsbyrån.
Barn kan vaccineras från ett år.
Snabbvaccinering kan göras med minst 2 veckor mellan första och andra dosen. Detta gäller personer under 60 år.
Skyddseffekten beräknas till cirka 95% efter grundvaccineringen men något lägre vid snabbvaccinering.
Övergående biverkningar kan förekomma med feber och influensaliknande symptom som försvinner efter något dygn.
Gravida bör endast vaccineras vid vistelse i riskområde under längre tid då klinisk erfarenhet saknas. Ammande kvinnor kan vaccineras.

TBE-virusrokotteista

  •  ROKOTTEISTA

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus vaccines


    P. Noel Barrett, ... Hartmut J. Ehrlich, in Vaccines (Sixth Edition), 2013

    Producers

    TBE vaccines are produced commercially by five manufacturers:
     Baxter AG (Vienna), 
    Novartis Vaccines (Marburg),
     IPVE (Moscow), 
    Microgen (Tomsk, Russia), and
     CIBP (Changchun, China). 
    Both manufacturers of European strain vaccines use essentially the same process to produce the vaccine, the major differences being the use of different strains and the addition of different stabilizers. An overview of the characteristics of the European and Russian vaccines is shown in Table 34-2.

    HSA is used as a stabilizer by Baxter, IPVE, and Microgen, 
    whereas Novartis uses an increased amount of sucrose as a stabilizer

    . Both manufacturers of European strain vaccines provide 
    adult (Baxter, FSME-IMMUN; Novartis, Encepur) and 
    pediatric (Baxter, FSME-IMMUN Junior; Novartis, Encepur-Children) formulations for children older than 1 year. 
     FSME-IMMUN is marketed as TicoVac in some countries. 
    TBE-Moscow has been approved for use in adults since 1982 and has been used to vaccinate more than 25 million people in Russia and neighboring countries.73
      EnceVir was licensed in the Russian Federation in 2001. Russian manufacturers do not offer pediatric formulations, and neither vaccine is licensed for use in children younger than 3 years. 
    TBE-Moscow has been approved for use in children 3 years or older since 1999.73 
     EnceVir was administered to children 3 to 16 years old, but this was temporarily stopped by the Russian Ministry of Healthcare in 2010 owing to postvaccination complications.
     No information is available about the manufacturing process, formulation, or dose schedule for the Chinese vaccine, but it is reported to have passed phase 1, 2, and 3 clinical trials.76
  •  

WHO:n prioriteettilista rokotevalmistelussa

 Kuten alimmalta riviltä huomaa, sille riville joutuu tämä meikäläisen maailman Punkkienkefaliittirokote TBE rokote Ottaen huomoon että etelän itikat eivät elä täällä, mutta jopa jääkauden  ja pakasteolosuhteet kestävä punkki elää, niin paikallisesti pitäisi i priorisoida täällä päin siedettävän hyvää  punkkienkefaliittirokotetta, vaikka ollaankin pikkukansoja ja "pikkukieliä" kuten tässä kuulin suomenkin kielestä sanottavan  radiossa.

WHO:  Immunization standards

Vaccines prequalification priority list 2015-16

High priority vaccines

  • Cholera (oral)
  • DTwP-based combination containing IPV (DTwP-Hep B-Hib-IPV)
  • Dengue
  • Hepatitis A
  • Human Papilloma Virus [HPV]
  • Malaria
  • Measles-Rubella
  • Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR)
  • Pneumococcal conjugate
  • Polio (inactivated) [IPV]
  • Polio (bivalent live oral) [bOPV1,3)
  • Rotavirus
  • Typhoid conjugate
  • Yellow fever

Medium priority vaccines

  • BCG
  • Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTwP)
  • DTwP based pentavalent combination (fully liquid DTwP-Hep B-Hib)
  • DTaP and DTaP combination containing IPV or Hepatitis B
  • Influenza H5N1 for stockpile
  • Influenza seasonal Northern and Southern Hemisphere formulations
  • Measles
  • Meningococcal A-containing conjugate
  • Meningococcal W-containing conjugate
  • Meningococcal ACWY containing conjugate
  • Rabies
  • Tetanus-diphtheria for adults (Td)
  • Varicella

Low priority vaccines

  • DTwP-Hib Fully liquid
  • DTwP-based tetravalent or pentavalent combination containing IPV [DTwP-Hib-IPV or DTwP-IPV]
  • Japanese Encephalitis
  • Meningoccocal AC-containing polysaccharide
  • Meningoccocal W-containing polysaccharide
  • Polio (monovalent live oral type 2) [mOPV2]
  • Polio (monovalent live oral type 3) [mOPV3]
  • Tetanus toxoid (TT)
  • Typhoid non conjugate

No priority

  • Diphtheria-tetanus vaccine for children (DT)
  • DTwP-based tetravalent combination [DTwP-Hep B ; DTwP+Hib (liquid-lyophilized)]
  • DTwP-based pentavalent combination (liquid-lyophilized) [DTwP-Hep B+Hib]
  • Haemophilus influenza type b monovalent
  • Hepatitis B monovalent
  • Influenza H1N1
  • Pneumococcal (polysaccharide)
  • Polio (monovalent live oral type 1) [mOPV1]
  • Polio (trivalent live oral) [tOPV)
  • Rubella monovalent
  • Any other vaccine not in the above priority categories
Vaccines of high programmatic interest that were not available for supply when the 2015-16 priority list was reviewed may be considered for evaluation if they become available before the end of the period during which the list remains current.